To close the drawing account to the capital account, we credit the drawing account and debit the capital account. Clear the balance of the revenue account by debiting revenue and crediting income summary. Let’s move on to learn about how to record closing those temporary accounts.

  1. Closing Entry is an important aspect of Accounting as it immensely affects the company’s financial records if done wrong.
  2. The income summary account is an intermediary between revenues and expenses, and the Retained Earnings account.
  3. Doing so will give zero balance to the brief history to use for the next fiscal year.
  4. All accounts can be classified as either permanent (real) or temporary (nominal) (Figure 5.3).

Now, the income summary account has a zero balance, whereas net income for the year ended appears as an increase (or credit) of $14,750. Now that we know the basics of closing entries, in theory, let’s go over the step-by-step process of the entire closing procedure through a practical business example. Keep in mind, however, that this account is only purposeful for closing the books, and thus, it is not recorded into any accounting reports and has a zero balance at the end of the closing process.

Accountants perform closing entries to return the revenue, expense, and drawing temporary account balances to zero in preparation for the new accounting period. If a company’s revenues are greater than its expenses, the closing entry entails debiting income summary and crediting retained earnings. In the event of a loss for the period, the income summary account needs to be credited and retained earnings reduced through a debit. Once adjusting entries have been made, closing entries are used to reset temporary accounts and transfer their balances to permanent accounts.

What are closing entries?

Revenue, expense, and dividend accounts affect retained earnings and are closed so they can accumulate new balances in the next period, which is an application of the time period assumption. The second entry requires expense accounts close to the Income Summary account. To get a zero balance in an expense account, the entry will show a credit to expenses and a debit to Income Summary. Printing Plus has $100 of supplies expense, $75 of depreciation expense–equipment, $5,100 of salaries expense, and $300 of utility expense, each with a debit balance on the adjusted trial balance.

The Income Summary balance is ultimately closed to the capital account. We’ll use a company called MacroAuto that creates and installs specialized exhaust systems for race cars. This entry zeros out dividends and reduces retained earnings by total dividends paid.

The income summary is used to transfer the balances of temporary accounts to retained earnings, which is a permanent account on the balance sheet. The balance sheet’s assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity accounts, however, are not closed. These permanent accounts and their ending balances act as the beginning balances for the next accounting period. After this closing entry has been posted, each of these revenue accounts has a zero balance, whereas the Income Summary has a credit balance of $7,400.

The balance in Income Summary is the same figure as what is reported on Printing Plus’s Income Statement. The Income Summary account has a new credit balance of $4,665, which is the difference between revenues and expenses (Figure 5.5). Closing entries are journal entries made at the end of an accounting period, that transfer temporary account balances into a permanent account. The purpose of closing entries is to prepare the temporary accounts for the next accounting period. A term often used for closing entries is “reconciling” the company’s accounts.

If not followed precisely, it would cause a misreport of a very important Account. In Accounting, Closing Entries are the same in every accounting standard worldwide except for some minor details. Countries may have extra steps or fewer steps when closing their entries, but generally, it is all the same where Temporary Accounts are closed and the balances are transferred. This time period, called the accounting period, usually reflects one fiscal year.

We see from the adjusted trial balance that our revenue account has a credit balance. To make the balance zero, debit the revenue account and credit the Income Summary account. Other accounting software, such as Oracle’s PeopleSoft™, post closing entries to a special accounting period that keeps them separate from all of the other entries. So, even though the process today is slightly (or completely) different than it was in the days of manual paper systems, the basic process is still important to understand. Once this closing entry is made, the revenue account balance will be zero and the account will be ready to accumulate revenue at the beginning of the next accounting period. All expense accounts are then closed to the income summary account by crediting the expense accounts and debiting income summary.

Should closing entries be performed before or after adjusting entries?

The expenses would be listed in the expense section, so you would need to find the total costs. The abbreviation REID makes it simple to recall which accounts need to be closed and how they are completed. Revenue, Expense, Income Summary, and Dividend are referred to as REID. Permanent Accounts are the opposite of Temporary Accounts as they are not closed at the end of the fiscal year, and their balances are carried over to the next fiscal year. The income Statement, also known as the Profit or Loss statement, is one of the 3 Main Financial Statements that every accountant and company globally uses.

Step 3: Close Income Summary account

Now that we have closed the temporary accounts, let’s review what the post-closing ledger (T-accounts) looks like for Printing Plus. It is important to understand retained earnings is not closed out, it is only updated. Closing entries are the journal entries used to transfer the balances of these temporary accounts to permanent accounts.

Understanding Closing Entries

The balance in the Income Summary account equals the net income or loss for the period. After preparing the closing entries above, Service Revenue will now be zero. Closing journal entries are made at the end of an accounting period to prepare the accounting records for the next period.

What Are Permanent Accounts?

To make them zero we want to decrease the balance or do
the opposite. We will debit the revenue accounts and credit the
Income Summary account. The credit to income summary should equal
the total revenue from the income statement. A closing entry is a journal entry that is made at the end of an accounting period to transfer balances from a temporary account to a permanent account.

Otherwise, the balances in these accounts would be incorrectly included in the totals for the following reporting period. Closing entries, also called closing journal entries, are entries made at the end of an accounting period to zero out all temporary accounts and transfer their balances to permanent accounts. In other words, the temporary accounts are closed or reset at the end of the year. The closing entries are the journal entry form
of the Statement of Retained Earnings. The statement of retained earnings shows the period-ending retained earnings after the closing entries have been posted.

This is the adjusted trial balance that will be used to make your closing entries. While these accounts remain on the books, their balance is reset to zero each month, which is done using closing entries. One of the most important steps in the accounting cycle is creating and game developer joe waters passes away posting your closing entries. As you can tell by the examples of Temporary Accounts, they all belong to 3 types of accounts. When closing entries, those three types of accounts are the only ones closed. The income statement summarizes your income, as does income summary.